Research Project Report

The Social Role of the Aging Ungulate

Margaret Altmann
University of Colorado

Published 1961-01-01


Observations were continued on bison, elk, and moose. Some criteria used for recognition of the aged animals are body build and head type and carriage, duration of rest periods, speed and flexibility in rising up, participation in species interaction, position in relation to species group during rut, and rate of grazing. A report of the behavior of the aged animals of these three species will be forthcoming at a later date after data collected has been analyzed. Project Number 77.