Birkhoff-James orthogonality in the trace norm, with applications to quantum resource theories

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Nathaniel Johnston
Shirin Moein
Rajesh Pereira
Sarah Plosker


Numerous results are presented that characterize when a complex Hermitian matrix is Birkhoff-James orthogonal, in the trace norm, to a (Hermitian) positive semidefinite matrix or set of positive semidefinite matrices. For example, a simple-to-test criterion that determines which Hermitian matrices are Birkhoff-James orthogonal, in the trace norm, to the set of all positive semidefinite diagonal matrices is developed. Applications in the theory of quantum resources are explored. For example, the quantum states that have modified trace distance of coherence equal to $1$ (the maximal possible value) are characterized, and a connection between the modified trace distance of $2$-entanglement and the NPPT bound entanglement problem is established.

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