The Hamiltonian extended Krylov subspace method

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Peter Benner
Heike Faßbender
Michel-Niklas Senn


An algorithm for constructing a $J$-orthogonal basis of the extended Krylov subspace
$\mathcal{K}_{r,s}=\operatorname{range}\{u,Hu, H^2u,$ $ \ldots, $ $H^{2r-1}u, H^{-1}u, H^{-2}u, \ldots, H^{-2s}u\},$
where $H \in \mathbb{R}^{2n \times 2n}$ is a large (and sparse) Hamiltonian matrix is derived (for $r = s+1$ or $r=s$). Surprisingly, this allows for short recurrences involving at most five previously generated basis vectors. Projecting $H$ onto the subspace $\mathcal{K}_{r,s}$ yields a small Hamiltonian matrix. The resulting HEKS algorithm may be used in order to approximate $f(H)u$ where $f$ is a function which maps the Hamiltonian matrix $H$ to, e.g., a (skew-)Hamiltonian or symplectic matrix. Numerical experiments illustrate that approximating $f(H)u$ with the HEKS algorithm is competitive for some functions compared to the use of other (structure-preserving) Krylov subspace methods.

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