Main Article Content
The present paper has two main goals. Firstly, to introduce diﬀerent metric topologies on the pencils (F,G) associated with autonomous singular (or regular) linear diﬀerential or diﬀerence systems. Secondly, to establish a new angle metric which is described by decomposable multi-vectors called Grassmann representatives (or Pl¨ucker coordinates) of the corresponding subspaces. A uniﬁed framework is provided by connecting the new results to known ones, thus aiding in the deeper understanding of various structural aspects of matrix pencils in system theory.