Sign patterns that require a positive or nonnegative left inverse

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In-Jae Kim
Bryan L. Shader


An m by n sign pattern A is an m by n matrix with entries in {+, −, 0}. The sign
pattern A requires a positive (resp. nonnegative) left inverse provided each real matrix with sign pattern A has a left inverse with all entries positive (resp. nonnegative). In this paper, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a sign pattern to require a positive or nonnegative left inverse. It is also shown that for n ≥ 2, there are no square sign patterns of order n that require a positive (left) inverse, and that an n by n sign pattern requiring a nonnegative (left) inverse is permutationally equivalent to an upper triangular sign pattern with positive main diagonal entries and nonpositive off-diagonal entries.

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