The least Laplacian eigenvalue of the unbalanced unicyclic signed graphs with $k$ pendant vertices

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Qiao Guo
Yaoping Hou
Deqiong Li

Abstract

Let $\Gamma=(G,\sigma)$ be a signed graph and $L(\Gamma)=D(G)-A(\Gamma)$ be the Laplacian matrix of $\Gamma$, where $D(G)$ is the diagonal matrix of vertex degrees of the underlying graph $G$ and $A(\Gamma)$ is the adjacency matrix of $\Gamma$. It is well-known that the least Laplacian eigenvalue $\lambda_n$ is positive if and only if $\Gamma$ is unbalanced. In this paper, the unique signed graph (up to switching equivalence) which minimizes the least Laplacian eigenvalue among unbalanced connected signed unicyclic graphs with $n$ vertices and $k$ pendant vertices is characterized.

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