# Spectral Dynamics of Graph Sequences Generated by Subdivision and Triangle Extension

## Main Article Content

## Abstract

For a graph G and a unary graph operation X, there is a graph sequence \G_k generated by G_0=G and G_{k+1}=X(G_k). Let Sp({G_k}) denote the set of normalized Laplacian eigenvalues of G_k. The set of limit points of \bigcup_{k=0}^\infty Sp(G_k)$, $\liminf_{k\rightarrow\infty}Sp(G_k) and $\limsup_{k\rightarrow \infty}Sp(G_k)$ are considered in this paper for graph sequences generated by two operations: subdivision and triangle extension. It is obtained that the spectral dynamic of graph sequence generated by subdivision is determined by a quadratic function, which is closely related to the the well-known logistic map; while that generated by triangle extension is determined by a linear function. By using the knowledge of dynamic system, the spectral dynamics of graph sequences generated by these two operations are characterized. For example, it is found that, for any initial non-trivial graph $G$, chaos takes place in the spectral dynamics of iterated subdivision graphs, and the set of limit points is the entire closed interval [0,2].